tune a guitar

Why you can’t tune a guitar – and how to fix it

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Tuning a guitar should be easy, but it’s not. In fact, the more you explore guitar tuning, the more you realize there is no one way to tune a guitar.

When it comes to tuning, ignorance is bliss.

If you’re a beginning player and you tune your guitar using an electronic or digital tuner until you get it “close enough” and then go on about your day, bashing out chords and having fun, you’re lucky. Relish those moments, because the minute you actually have to pay attention to tuning, like when you are about to record or you’re playing with others who care about intonation, you can easily fall down a rabbit hole that can be impossible to emerge from.

Tuning a guitar should be easy – after all, we have digital tuners! – but it’s not. Every guitar is different. Every player is different. What style of music you’re playing matters. Where you play on the neck matters. How hard you strum matters. What key you’re playing in matters. It also matters if you’re using a capo. It’s no wonder that professional bands have guitar techs working offstage.

In fact, the more you start to explore guitar tuning the more you start to realize one important truth:

There is no one way to tune a guitar.

OK, so why is this true?

One reason relates to the physical layout of a guitar compared to a piano or even a violin. Each note on a piano has its own string (or strings). You tune that note to where you want it, and you’re good to go. Every time you hit that key you get the note you want.

On a guitar, however, you’re asking six strings to produce dozens of notes each. And the way you produce those notes is by pressing down on the string. So let’s say you get your low E string in perfect tune: the minute you push down on the string on a fret, you are bending the string a tiny bit, which makes the tuning a tiny bit sharp, especially if your strings are high off the fret board.

You’ll notice the problem gets worse the higher you move up the fret board. Maybe your open chords sound beautiful, but then you go to hit a barre chord on the ninth fret and it sounds terrible. This problem sounds worse still if you put more pressure on the string. (A violin should have the same problem, but there are no frets, so the player can adjust his fingering to solve this problem.)

Also, the lower strings on a guitar tend to ring sharp the harder you play them. So if you’re playing a style of music where you tend to hit your low strings particularly hard, you will sound more out of tune.

We’re not done with our reasons why you can’t tune your guitar, but let’s pause here, because these are very common problems, especially amongst acoustic guitar players, and James Taylor has a rather nice method of tuning that can help solve these problems.

James Taylor to the rescue!

To do this, you’ll need a tuner that can measure cents. A cent is 1/100 of a semitone. (C to C# is a semitone, or half-step.) These tuners can be easily downloaded to your phone or computer.

James Taylor, in order to accommodate the vagaries of acoustic guitars, tunes his strings flatter than normal. Here is his guide:
High E string -3 cents
B string -6 cents
G string -4 cents
D string -8 cents
A string -10 cents
Low E string -12 cents

This tuning method is also great for using a capo.

Now, your mileage may vary. Your guitar is different than Taylor’s guitar. Your action may be higher. Maybe you play harder. Maybe you don’t use capos. Try it out and adjust your tuning as need be.

How NOT to tune your guitar

1. Do not use the fifth fret and seventh fret harmonics. Many guitarists learn this method. You play a harmonic on the seventh fret of your low E string, then play a harmonic on the fifth fret of your A string, and then tune your string until they match. You can listen for the vibrations. When the vibrations are gone, the strings are, apparently, in tune. You repeat this all down the guitar (expect for the B string) and hope that this will tune your guitar. But it won’t.

2. Do not tune to a chord. You’ve probably tried this at home. You’re tuning your guitar and you play the open D, G, and B strings. And you tweak the B string until it sounds perfectly in tune with your D and G strings. Glorious, right? But then you play a D chord… and your D note on your B string is way flat. You check your B again and it sounds great. But now: check that B with a tuner, and you’ll see it’s about 14 cents flat of what a “standard” B should be.

What gives? Why don’t these two tuning methods work?

Well, this is going to take us further down the rabbit hole, but hang in there because it will lead us to a very interesting place.

Equal temperament

When you pluck a string on a guitar, you’re actually hearing more than one tone. If you listen closely you can hear other notes, harmonics, ringing higher in the register. To hear these harmonics better, pluck that same string and then lightly hold your finger in the middle of the string (at the twelfth fret). Doing this produces a tone that is one octave higher than the original note. Pluck the string again, this time without touching it, and you’ll be able to hear that octave harmonic in the unaccompanied note.

Pluck the string again, holding your finger over the seventh fret, and you’ll hear a “perfect” fifth. Hold your finger between the third and fourth fret (about 90% of the way towards the fourth fret) and you’ll hear a “just” third (more on that later). As you move your finger up towards the head, you can produce all the tones that were originally used to create the notes of Western music. These notes are all present in one note.

Notice that in order to produce that “just” third note, we couldn’t hold our finger exactly over the fourth fret. We had to fudge it a bit.

Try this out. On your low E string, produce that third harmonic again by holding your finger near the fourth fret. Hear that note? That is a “just” third, or how we hear what a G# should sound like. OK, now while that harmonic is ringing out, play a G# note on your high E string. They aren’t the same. They should be, but your G# played on your high E string is sharper than the just third.

This is because our guitar – in fact all of Western music – is tuned to what we call equal temperament (ET).

If you could move the frets of your guitar, and you moved your fourth fret back towards the head to the spot where your finger was producing that “just” third harmonic, and then you played the G# note on your high E string, you would have a “just” third.

That is what we call just intonation (JI). That G# is the same as the G# harmonic that is playing when you pluck your low E string. If you play a “just” G# on the G string of your guitar, your sustain will go through the roof because that note will resonate with both E strings.

The reason JI sounds right to us is because all the notes in our scale are ringing true to the harmonics in our root note.

Now, as nice as JI sounds, there’s a big problem with it: it only works for one key. So, if you are playing a song in C on a JI-tuned piano it will sound great. But if you then want to play a second song in F#, it will sound totally out of tune. In order to play that second song and have it sound nice, you would need to retune your piano to F#. That’s because the distance between all the notes are not the same in JI: the distance between an E and an F is different than the distance between an F and an F#.

So someone very clever came along and realized that if we made the distance between all of the semitones exactly the same, then we would be able to switch keys (and/or modulate between any key) very easily. Hence, equal temperament.

Of course, using ET meant sacrificing the pure harmonies we get from JI. In equal temperament, every single interval (other than an octave) is off. The major third is, as we mentioned above 14 cents sharp, which is why tuning to a chord doesn’t work. And an ET fifth is two cents flatter than a JI (or “perfect”) fifth, which is why tuning your guitar with fifth harmonics results in an out of tune guitar. Two cents may not seem like much, especially since, in the James Taylor tuning method, we suggested you detune all of your strings by as much as 12 cents. But when you are using harmonics to tune, you’re going flatter the higher you go, as opposed to the Taylor method, in which the lower strings are flatter.

Also, the minute you hit the distortion pedal, you’ll notice the problems with ET even more.

Watch this video to hear (and see) the difference between JI and ET. (Ignore their use of some of the terms, like “false tuning.” There’s nothing “false” about ET, it’s just a compromise.)

Guitar frets to the rescue!

OK, so maybe this intonation “problem” doesn’t bother you. After all, guitar music has been successfully recorded with regular guitars, tuned the normal way for decades, and for the most part the listener doesn’t complain.

But if it does bother you – and once you notice it, the more it will bother you – there are actually some interesting solutions.

First off, if you are recording and you are predominantly playing one chord or can use single chord shapes – e.g. using barre chords based on E – no problem: tune your guitar so that that E sounds great.

Another solution is to add extra frets to your guitar. Turkish guitarist Tolgahan Çoğulu offers easy solutions to add frets where you need them.

True Temperament offers totally different frets to use on your guitar. “True temperament” is not JI, but it’s much closer. Check out this video, featuring guitar wizard Mattias Eklundh.

The problem with these solutions is the same that we had with JI: they only work for certain keys. Recognizing this, True Temperament has developed two styles: one that works better for rock music and one that works better for jazz.

Finally, if you’re willing to invest in a new guitar, check out FreeNote’s 12-tone Ultra Plus guitar, which features 36 different pitches per octave. This guitar has all the standard frets, plus a bunch of others that allow for rather interesting sounds (your 11th chords, for example, will sounds gloriously consonant). This video, featuring microtonal musician Jon Catler, offers some highlights.

This guitar and video brings us to another rabbit hole: microtonal music. But we’ll explore that in another article.

Scott McCormick is a musician and the author of the Mr. Pants series of graphic novels for kids. He also runs Storybook Editing, offering developmental editing for authors.

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25 thoughts on “Why you can’t tune a guitar – and how to fix it

  1. Even a high quality guitar normally has only 12 frets, and the octave is the only interval that is in-tune. ALL other intervals are mistuned, or tempered. The Harmonic Series has an infinite number of different intervals, while standard fretting has only one interval, a half-step, which is compounded to imitate other intervals.
    Most intervals in the Series are not even approximated in standard fretting.
    Most musicians have never even experienced the feeling of playing a perfectly tuned chord.
    All musicians owe it to themselves to experience that feeling, at least once.
    BTW, the Beatles often used pure intervals in their vocal harmonies. And Lennon tuned to C 528 hertz for songs like Imagine.
    Now guitars with pure intervals are available: http://www.microtones.com

  2. Oh yeah …and DON”T leave a guitar sitting by the window with the sun shining in on it for long periods of time. BIG TROUBLE. Heating up that wood can really mess up your neck adjustments.

  3. To anyone having tuning issues: If you don’t have a locking nut, you should put on only enough string to keep it secure and cut the rest off, but most importantly, you HAVE TO stretch out the strings. Generally about 3 or 4 times of laying the LP on your lap and taking each string and grabbing it individually and stretching it when the strings are new takes care of tuning. Done! Example: with the LP on your lap and the heaviest strings towards you, place your fingers over the strings, grab the first string … get your fingers under the string. Hold the string with all fingers. Starting with your knuckles on the fret board roll your hand to the right and to the left while holding the string. Stretch the string. Stretch it good, but be careful on the first two that you don’t snap them. Stretch. Tune. Stretch. Tune. Stretch. Tune. repeat. I have done this on my LPs for decades. After that, I rarely have to tune them when I take them out of the case! I am an aggressive player. Lots of bends and vibrato. I do this with all guitars, not just LPs. When you put new strings on, you need to stretch those strings. Better to do it before you play.

    1. I also agree with the other commenters who point to intonation as something to check when all else fails. If your intonation is out, it’s an easy fix and you will have tuning issues until you get the intonation set correctly, so if you do what I posted above and still have major tuning issues, then it is likely that your intonation is out. After that, it can only be bigger issues like you need to have the neck adjusted or maybe a bad truss rod.

  4. Check intonation at the 12th fret. On electric guitars we have adjustable saddles on the bridge that will correct the intonation. (Move away from the 12th fret to flatten, and conversely to sharpen.) That should help with staying in tune up and down the fret board. With acoustic guitars check the 12th fret intonation before you buy.

  5. Most importantly, tune with the same attack you are going to play with. If you tune with a soft little pluck and it seems in tune, it’s going to go way sharper if you hit the strings harder during the song.

  6. Bollocks. I’ve been playing guitar since I was 11, I’m now 63 and I’ve done pitch pipes, pianos, tuning forks and weird battery things with wavering needles. the best thing I ever bought was TC electronics Polywotsit Clip thing. Spot on tuning. IF YOUR GUITAR DOESN’T PLAY IN TUNE UP AND DOWN THE NECK – (hint) – it’s NOT the tuning, it’s your guitar. Look up Stewmac videos on how to set up your guitar. If you have brains, balls and some basic tools, you can sort your guitar problems by your own self.

  7. And then there were the Beatles who did not even know the name of the note on each string. Now, tune your butt off and then make music as great as they did. Still tuning?

    1. @joey
      You couldn’t be more correct.
      Too many musicians now-a-days try so hard to sound flawless, that they actually forget about the emotional aspects of music.
      The music produced from the 50’s – mid 80’s had character. Sure, the intonation may have been a little wacked, but it just sounded and “felt” right…

  8. Buy a high end Gibson and you’re good to go. I can play a 2 hour show and my 1978 Les Paul Deluxe is still in tune after with the hubbys Flying Vee and he about rips the neck off because he doesn’t use pedals and forces all those sounds out of his. I never realized people had so much trouble unless they weren’t using a high end instrument or bolt on neck which sucks. Even I can knock one of those out of tune easily .
    Sorry if that sounds snobby, but it’s true

    1. To each his own. Gibson QC seems to have taken a dive lately so there’s that. And there’s definitely some fine quality Korean made instruments out there right now, But on the other point, my bolt on necks stays in tune just fine, and unlike Gibson, if they fall off the guitar stand the head won’t break off because it’s not offset. If somehow a truck runs over the neck…I can replace it myself. Get what you like and take care of it. If you don’t like it next year, replace it. Blind loyalty to one brand really limits your options because quality varies even within brands IMHO. BTW I own an 80’s Gibson V as well and I love it. Cheers

    2. Sorry Linda, but it is simply not true that a high end instrument and a set neck is all you need and you’re “good to go”.

      I hear novices frequently ask “does it stay in tune”? as a measure of how good a guitar is. IMHO if a guitar can’t stay in tune, reasonably, it is either set up poorly or a complete pile. Conversely, the best or most expensive guitars under the sun won’t magically hold their tuning.

      It is simple physics so, yes a better instrument with appropriately working bridge and nut will hold tuning better, but that’s a factor of other things than your Les Paul being great per se. It is also made of wood which expands and contracts – all the time. By your set neck logic the best guitars would be made of stainless steel, which wouldn’t flex at all so the “tuning” would “stick”. But they would sound um, bad.

      I wouldn’t want a guitar that doesn’t move. My “high end” J-45 holds it’s tuning beautifully. But she needs to be tuned because she is alive, and she flexes with the world around us – I gig in Minnesota so the temperature/climate is never the same from minute to minute, and I’ve been known to bend and bang a bit. My Gretch was a stinker to keep in tune, with the Bigsby and all, but after I properly cleaned and filed the nut and bridge for my string gauge. It is much better. With a trem or bigsby it’s probably recommended to lube the bridge and nut, which I also do. …and yes I have them all, set neck gibby’s strats, tele’s and they all hold their tuning, reasonably, because I work on my own “weapons”.

      So, the reason your particular gibby stays in tune (for a couple hours anyway, as it seems to you) IS because it is great instrument, – BUT more importantly, it is properly setup (which will be better with a better guitar – off the shelf) and you play lightly. Give it some time, let the wound strings burrow into the nut a bit, and you’ll need to service it to maintain the experience. I’ll bet you that guitar I can pull it out of tune with one run-through of Pride and Joy.

      1. oh, and I forgot to mention the string winding – that needs to be done right too.
        …just because I went all Poindexter on you I thought I should throw that in.

    3. Sounds very much like someone who has never tried an Ibanez and heard what a really reliable instrument is :)))

      Ever seen a Gibson in the hands of Vai, Satch, Gilbert, Abasi and… well, good guitarists? ;)))

    1. Good call! For those who don’t know, here is some info on BFTS from Wikipedia.
      In 1992, Feiten patented a new ‘tempering’ tuning system for guitars, now marketed as the ‘Buzz Feiten tuning system’. The architecture of his system makes it possible to tune guitars and basses more accurately, resulting in more accurate tonality of notes played on the lowest 3 or 4 frets, which otherwise frequently play out-of-tune compared to notes played on the rest of the neck. The difference, though subtle, is especially evident in the playing of open chords.

      The system requires some minor alterations to the instrument, and can be retrofitted to most guitars. The Buzz Feiten Tuning System is factory-installed on several well-known brands, plus guitars made by trained and qualified luthiers who are able to incorporate Feiten’s formula into their instruments.

      The Feiten tuning system can make use of a special guitar tuner featuring “Buzz Feiten presets” — the strings have to be tuned slightly flat or sharp because of the nut’s compensations.

      Learn more at http://www.buzzfeiten.com/

  9. I have been using “BUZZ FEITEN” tuning for about 10 years and I LOVE IT! It may not be perfect, but I find the compensation of moving the nut closer to the first fret to be a HUGE IMPROVEMENT! Hey, don’t forget to mention that old strings also destroy intonation.

  10. Finally, someone who understands my plight! Like you, I get really irritated by those 3rds! Last week I recorded a song and got so frustrated with every chord being just slightly out of tune – I tuned-up and recorded each chord separately! Luckily there were only 6 chords in the song….jeez!

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